In accordance with the Article 2 agreements of the treaty, Australia is granted preference status for the purchase of US military equipment, which means that Australia has continuous access instead of having to negotiate authorization on a case-by-case basis. The agreements with the United States “also provide for the provision of ammunition and equipment in the event of an emergency, which will mitigate the need for large-scale storage by the ADF.” (31) Some have argued that this relationship between procurement and defence logistics is a double-edged sword, with “access” being an understatement for dependency. But no nation, with the possible exception of the United States itself, and especially a nation the size and population of Australia, can expect to be truly independent, especially if “the reality of modern warfare requires that allied technology fit well.” (32) Even in their quest for autonomy, Australian governments have accepted that Australia should depend on its alliance with the United States to provide the technical means to defend itself. The 2000 White Paper on Defence confirms the relevance of this dependence and notes that “the type of ADF we need is not possible without technological access from the American alliance.” (33) However, this situation was an opportunity. Australia and New Zealand have announced that they will support Japan`s rearmament, but only with the agreement of the United States, that it will assist them in the face of any hostility from another power. Australia and New Zealand proposed the DEEE Treaty and the United States finally agreed despite initial reluctance. This document is by no means a complete treatment of the very complex alliance relationship. Rather, it is an attempt to identify the main costs, benefits and challenges and to give readers a perspective. As a result, we divided the paper into two main sections, benefits and costs, each seeking to highlight and maximize the case it supported. We hope to present to readers a summary of the alliance and the most important after fifty years.
It should not be considered that the views expressed here to argue necessarily constitute the detailed views of the authors. 18. In the spirit of strengthening defence cooperation, both sides underlined their respective commitments to a binding bilateral export control agreement, which would put Australia, with the exception of most of the US requirements for International Traffic authorization, in the Arms Regulations. Although the agreements that allow Australia to access and share with the United States have been concluded with LES, they are an integral and very valuable part of the alliance and have recently been extended. The exchange of information between the United States and Australia began during the war against Japan. Signals intelligence cooperation and exchange was formalised under the UK-US-Australian Agreement (UKUSA) of 1947-48, described as remaining “the most important international agreement that Australia is a party”. (41) UKUSA and the maintenance of “common facilities” in place of the ANNEXE and related agreements are regarded by Des Ball as “the fundamental foundations of the US-Australian alliance”. (42) While there were signs of a thaw in the nuclear conflict between the United States and the NZ, U.S. pressure mounted in 2006, with U.S.
trade agents linking the lifting of the ban on U.S. nuclear vessels from New Zealand ports and a possible free trade agreement between the two countries.  Several developments in Asia between 1949 and 1951 contributed to the change of the United States.