Sometimes the ditches were filled with water by damming or diverting nearby streams forming water-filled moats. Also, the broad base of the mottes meant that attacks could come from any direction. In England, the first proper castles were the motte and bailey castles. 4 The motte was usually round. A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification. The motte was a _____ hill, which would normally be man-made. Description. A single tower was built on (or partially within) the motte or earth mound while a courtyard area or bailey at the base was protected by a wooden palisade and an encircling outer ditch. The mottes were built layer upon layer. The first record of a motte and bailey castle in France appeared at the start of the 11th Century. Building Motte and Bailey castles were a great way of securing the towns that had submitted to his power. Each Norman nobleman who received land was expected to build a castle there. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. Managed by Caboodle UX design studio in London, Citation: C N Trueman "Motte and Bailey Castles", Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the, French kings had gained a reputation for building castles. School History is the largest library of history teaching and study resources on the internet. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? However, this series of castle building did not cause the problem to disappear. Motte and Bailey castles were made out of wood. Such defensive structures were In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. Motte and bailey castles were first used by the Normans as far back as 1020 AD. For example, a large motte is estimated to have required around 24,000 man-days of work, while the smaller ones required around 1,000. However, for two years up to 1068, he was faced with rebellions throughout his new kingdom. When was the first Motte and Bailey Castle built? The reason for this was that it took an enormous effort to pile up such a huge volume of earth. Motte and bailey castles became common in England at the time of William the Conquerorâs death in 1087.The construction of them prompted the future of a huge programme of castle building in England and Wales. The film looks at why they were built, their strenghts and their weaknesses. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. Fortified settlements first appeared over 2,000 years ago, where fortified towns started to appear in the Indus Valley in Egypt and also in China, where settlements were often protected by large earthen walls. They had been impressed with the French castellans and adopted them; the most popular design was the motte and bailey. Alternatively, some other castles were designed with a single bailey and two mottes, such as Lincoln Castle. Motte and bailey castles were only temporary features (though many mottes exist to this day) while stone keep castles were built to last. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. William had 8000 men to try and consolidate his power in England. As they were largely made of wood, motte and bailey castles were susceptible to fire during an attack, as can be seen in various scenes from the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the 11th-century CE Norman conquest of Britain and events leading up to it. Our worksheet bundle includes a fact file and printable worksheets and student activities. After he invaded England in 1066, William needed to construct castles in large numbers. Often, the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. Here he built his third English castle after Pevensey and Hastings. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Motte and bailey castles were fortifications that had a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised area of ground called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Get your evenings and weekends back? Two castles were built in Canterbury by the Normans who made use of the fortified Roman town walls. In order for a large tower to be built, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes. This was the factor that allowed the Normans to consolidate their power very quickly, as they moved on to conquer each region. Motte and bailey castles were first used by the Normans as far back as 1020 AD. Wooden castles were quick to build and repair, but they were easy to attack and burn down. One of Williamâs closest acquaintances was Roger of Montgomery who became earl of Shropshire. The word “motte” is the French version of the Latin “mota”, it was an early word for “turf” and by the 12th century it was used to refer to the castle design itself. Motte and bailey castles were very popular for almost 200 years. William responded by marching his feared army to a trouble spot and re-asserting his authority. Click any of the example images below to view a larger version. These structures consist of a hill (the motte) and a courtyard (the bailey). They were cheap and easy to build and didn’t require any special design. It was always surrounded by a protective wall, be it from wood or stone. Motte-and-Bailey Castles In 1067, William started building the Tower of London to show everyone how powerful he was. A short film about Motte and Bailey Castles. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. They were a true European innovation. The Normans achieved great fame for their castle building. 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