UniDo has completed more than 1,340 Montreal Protocol projects through the Multilateral Fund, the Global Environment Fund (GLOBAL Environment FUND) and bilateral contributions. It is currently implementing HCFC-based management plans in 70 countries. Australia is playing an active role in the ongoing negotiations on the Montreal Protocol and ensuring that new ozone protection measures are scientifically sound and technically feasible, and that developing countries receive support in their efforts to phase out ozone-depleting substances and CFCs. The parties to the Montreal Protocol agreed at their 28th meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, on October 15, 2016, to gradually reduce CFCs. Countries agreed to add the list of controlled substances to the list of controlled substances and approved a timetable for their gradual reduction from 80 to 85% by the end of the 2040s. The first reductions by industrialized countries are expected in 2019. Developing countries will see a freeze on CFC consumption for some countries in 2024 and 2028. The uses of QPS are currently excluded from abandonment under the Montreal Protocol. The role of key industry players in the phasing out of CFCs also provides lessons on how commercial interests can be used to achieve environmental objectives. At first, CFC manufacturers were hostile to any regulation, but by the time the Montreal Protocol was considered, the market had changed and opportunities to profit from the production of CFC substitutes had increased sharply – which favoured some of the larger manufacturers who had begun to explore alternatives. This diversity within the industry was put to good use and an alliance was formed between the environmental movement and the companies that eventually had to benefit from the strengthened rules. After initial resistance, DuPont, the industry leader responsible for a quarter of the world`s CFC production, supported the first draft Montreal Protocol and its subsequent strengthening, in part because it could benefit from the export of alternatives to CFCs to the European market, since a national ban on the non-essential use of CFCs as aerosol fuel had been introduced in the United States in 1978.
that drive innovation. The Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances is a 1987 international agreement. It was designed to stop the production and importation of ozone-depleting substances and reduce their concentration in the atmosphere to protect the planet`s ozone layer. Gareau, B. J., DuPuis, E.M (2009). From global public environmental policy to the private sector: lessons to be learned from the stagnation of the methyl bromide protocol. Environment and Planning A, 41 (10), 2305-2323. Another group of substances, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), has been introduced as non-ozone depletion alternatives to support the timely abandonment of CFCs and HCFCs.
CFCs are now widely used in air conditioning systems, refrigerators, aerosols, foams and other products. While these chemicals do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, some of them have GW of 12 to 14,000. Overall, HFC emissions are increasing by 8% per year and annual emissions are expected to reach 7-19% of global CO2 emissions by 2050. Uncontrolled growth in HFC emissions is therefore driving efforts to keep global temperature rise at or below 2 degrees Celsius over the course of this century in Storals. Urgent action on CFCs is needed to protect the climate system. The Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances is the pioneering multilateral environmental agreement that governs the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals, known as ozone-depleting substances (SDGs). When these chemicals are released into the atmosphere, they harm the stratospheric ozone layer, the terrestrial shield that protects humans and the environment from noci rays